Category Archives: Guide to Academic Citations

We would like to thank the following researchers and clients for citing in their publications.  The service is just over a year old, so we look forward to seeing this list grow in the years to come!

Skuland, T. (2013). Effects of Toll-like Receptor Agonists and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in the SW982 Cell Model for Synovitis.

Skelton, J. (2013). The Effects of Dietary Iron Concentration on Colonic Inflammation.

How to Cite or Reference

We really appreciate the support of our clients in citing our ELISA analysis service.  We request that you cite our service as follows:

Within the body of the paper: (Leading Technology Group, Australia)

If you require an APA style citation: (Version 3.2) (Software). (2014). Australia: LTG Ventures Pty Ltd. Retrieve from

Thank you again for your support.

Save and access past ELISA analysis reports now allows all signed in users to access their past reports.  The image below shows the new Past Reports menu item that takes you to a list of all your historical ELISA analysis reports.

Past Reports

In addition we have updated our ELISA analysis reports to include:

  • All standard, negative and blank data
  • a print friendly feature providing a report for printing or saving as PDF.

Report Example

ELISA Software 4PL Curve Fitting for ELISA Analysis

The ELISA Analysis 4PL and 5PL curve fitting models are based on the “Analysis of dose-response curves” (Package ‘drc’) statistical programming package for biology and other fields that leverage dose-response curves.  This package is part of the open source R statistical software environment.  Further details on the model can be found in the following references:

  • The following is a specific reference for the Package drc:

Ritz, C. & Streibig, J. C. (2005) Bioassay Analysis using R. J. Statist. Software, Vol 12, Issue 5.

  • The following papers are cited by the Package drc creators:

4PL curve: Seber, G. A. F. and Wild, C. J (1989) Nonlinear Regression, New York: Wiley \& Sons (p. 330).”
5PL curve: Finney, D. J. (1979) Bioassay and the Practise of Statistical Inference, Int. Statist. Rev. , 47, 1-12.”

ELISA Software Background Cut-off or Threshold Calculation

ELISA kits offer a reliable and repeatable method for detecting any given target in may types of sample.  However ELISA kits involve several steps and reagents and in some cases significant background noise can result from the interaction of these reagents.  For this reason it is important to ensure that your results are statistically significant when compared to the natural background noise of the ELISA system.

The ELISA Analysis platform calculates the background cut-off automatically whenever you include negative controls in your experiment.  Here is how it works:

1. Specify the wells that are negative controls in your plate layout.  The more negatives you include the better as this will increase the statistical accuracy of the cut-off calculation.

This is an example of an ELISA kit plate plate layout that can be used for calculating an accurate background cut-off value.

2. When you click “Analyze & Create Report” we will take the negative OD values, calculate the mean OD for the negatives and calculate the standard deviation (SD) for the negatives.  The background cut-off is then calculated as the mean plus three times the standard deviation:

Background Cut-off = Mean of Negatives + (3 x SD of Negatives)

3. In your ELISA Analysis report you will see that the Cut-off Threshold is displayed at the top along with the Baseline value which is equal to the mean of the negative values.  Where a mean OD reading is below the Background Cut-off value then the calculated Mean Concentration is not provided and there is a cross marked in the “Excluded: Optical Density below cutoff” column.

ELISA Analysis Report Showing Background Cut-offs


Note: If you do not include any negative wells in your plate layout then the Background cut-off value will default to zero.

We hope that you will find this article useful.  Please feel free to contact us with any questions and feedback regarding this feature and how we could improve it.

Elisa Analysis Plate Layout Tool

ELISA Analysis offers a powerful and easy to use ELISA kit plate layout designer.  A unique offering from ELISA Analysis is that we allow users to select from plate layouts that have been designed by other users in the community as well as from your own past layouts.

The easiest way to learn about the layout designer is to try it or watch our demonstration video on youtube:

1. Selecting from Existing Layouts allows you to choose from the Most Popular or Most Resent ELISA kit plate layouts that have been created by the ELISA Analysis user community.

ELISA Analysis Existing ELISA Kit Plate Layouts

2. Selecting from Create your Layout allows you to create a new layout using our layout designer.  The tool is straightforward and you simply need to follow the steps on the right hand side for each set of wells that you add to your plate.  Once complete you can give the layout a name and select whether or not to share the layout with other users.

ELISA Analysis Create You Own ELISA Kit Plate Layouts

3. Selecting from My Layouts allows you to choose from the Most Popular or Most Resent ELISA kit plate layouts that you have created in the past.  This is a great resource if you are regularly running experiments with the same plate layouts.

ELISA Analysis My Layouts ELISA Kit Plate Layouts